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    Software can be protected by referring to Copyright Law (Law no. 633/1941), with particular regard to articles 64 bis to 64 quarter, since the law does not set forth any particular protection to be granted to such programs under IPC; nonetheless in some peculiar cases it could be recognized the patentability, provided that the soft- ware solves a technical issue.

    The design or model protection has a crucial relevance in respect of a wide range of products in industry, fashion and handicraft.Italian application for the registration of designs (bi-dimensional) and models (three-dimensional) is filed by the author, unless designs or models are created by employees and to the extent that the task is included among their duties; in such case, the employer, without prejudice to the employee’s right to be acknowledged as the author and to have his name entered in the certificate of registration (article 38 of IPC), can obtain the registration.

    Patent provides the owner with a legal mean to prevent others from exploiting the protected invention. There- fore, patent is a very important commercial tool for companies, allowing them to return on the investment in research and development that led to the creation of that new technology.

    Through the protection granted by the registered trademark, the manufacturer, the distributor or the retailer can distinguish their products or services from those of all other traders, consequently increasing commercial re- putation, trustworthiness by the consumers and economic value of the firm.

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